Two Models of Govt

This book is due out in early 2016.  Fill in your CONTACT details on the last page of this website and you will be sent a DISCOUNT COUPON.



Dr Michael Arnheim

Barrister at Law

Sometime Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge


 This book offers a fresh and original analysis of the power structure of a number of societies, past and present.

  • There are and ever have been only two essential models of government: minority rule of all types (labelled “Oligocracy”) and regimes in which power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual (labelled “Monocracy”).
  • Vaunted democracies are in reality either Oligocracies or Monocracies.
  • The present-day “democracies” of Britain and the United States are in reality composite Oligocracies made up of several disparate elements.
  • Oligocracies are by definition regimes with a high degree of inequality, but with variable levels of liberty.
  • Oligocracy and inequality are the “default” features of human society.
  • Equality is unattainable except by a radical Monocracy like Fidel Castro’s Cuba, and then only with difficulty and at the expense of liberty and probably of lives as well.
  • Equality of opportunity must not be equated with equality. Equality of opportunity means an equal opportunity to become unequal.
  • Paradoxically, however, for genuine equality of opportunity to exist there has to be equality – which is practically unattainable.
  • For genuine freedom of expression to exist there also needs to be equality, because the little man standing on his soap-box and shouting his lungs out at Speaker’s Corner in London’s Hyde Park cannot compete with the media moguls – which is why genuine freedom of expression is rare.
  • Once these truths are recognised, it becomes clear that for one state to attempt regime change in a foreign country is likely to be futile.